Discreet affair in Erie

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The following Notes were written in Virginia in the yearand somewhat corrected and enlarged in the winter ofin answer to Queries proposed to the Author, by a Foreigner of Distinction, then residing among us. The subjects are all treated imperfectly; some scarcely touched on. To apologize for this by developing the circumstances of the time and place of their composition, would be to open wounds which have already bled enough.

To these circumstances some of their imperfections may with truth be ascribed; the great mass to the want of information and want of talents in the writer.

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He had a few copies printed, which he gave among his friends: and a translation of them has been lately published in France, but Discreet affair in Erie such alterations as the laws of the press in that country rendered necessary. They are now offered to the public in their original form and language. Virginia is bounded on the East by the Atlantic: on the North by a line of latitude, crossing the Eastern Shore through Watkins's Point, being about 37 degrees.

Mason and Dixon; thence by that line, and a continuation of it westwardly to the completion of five degrees of longitude from the eastern boundary of Pennsylvania, in the same latitude, and thence by a meridian line to the Ohio: On the West by the Ohio and Missisipi, to latitude 36 degrees. North: and on the South by the line of latitude last-mentioned. By admeasurements through nearly the whole of this last line, and supplying the unmeasured parts from good data, the Atlantic and Missisipi, are found in this latitude to be miles distant, equal to 13 degrees.

This being our comprehension of longitude, that of our latitude, taken between this and Mason and Dixon's line, is 3 degrees. These boundaries include an area somewhat triangular, of square miles, whereof lie westward of the Allegany mountains, and westward of the meridian of the mouth of the Great Kanhaway.

This state is therefore one third larger than the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, which are reckoned at square miles. These limits result from, 1.

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The antient charters from the crown of England. The grant of Maryland to the Lord Baltimore, and the subsequent determinations of the British court as to the extent of that grant. The grant of Pennsylvania to William Penn, and a compact between the general assemblies of the commonwealths of Virginia and Pennsylvania as to the extent of that grant. The grant of Carolina, and actual location of its northern boundary, by consent of both parties. The treaty of Paris of The confirmation of the charters of the neighbouring states by the convention of Virginia at the time of constituting their commonwealth.

The cession made by Virginia to Congress of all the lands to which they had title on the North side of the Ohio. An inspection of a map of Virginia, will give a better idea of the geography of its rivers, than any description in writing. Their may be imperfectly noted. The channel is from to fathom wide, and at common flood tide, affords 18 feet water to Norfolk. The Strafford, a 60 gun ship, went there, Discreet affair in Erie herself to cross the bar at Sowell's point. The Fier Rodrigue, pierced for 64 guns, and carrying 50, went there without lightening.

Craney island, at the mouth of this river, commands its channel tolerably well. Vessels passing that, may go 8 miles up the river; those of 10 feet draught may go four miles further, and those of six tons burthen, 20 miles further.

A 40 gun ship goes to James town, and, lightening herself, may pass to Harrison's bar, on which there is only 15 feet water.

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Vessels of tons may go to Warwick; those of go to Rocket's, a mile below Richmond; from thence is about 7 feet water to Richmond; and about the center of the town, four feet and a half, where the is interrupted by falls, which in a course of six miles, descend about 80 feet perpendicular: above these it is d in canoes and batteaux, and is prosecuted safely and advantageously to within 10 miles of the Blue ridge; and even through the Blue ridge a ton weight has been brought; and the expence would not be great, when compared with its object, to open a tolerable up Jackson's river and Carpenter's creek, to within 25 miles of Howard's creek of Green briar, both of which have then water enough to float vessels into the Great Kanhaway.

In some future state of population, I think it possible, that its may also be made to interlock with that of the Patowmac, and through that to communicate by a short portage with the Ohio. But in common speech, it is called James river to its source. The river there narrows to the width of a mile, and is contained within very high banks, close under which the vessels may ride. It holds 4 fathom water at high tide for 25 miles above York to the mouth of Poropotank, where the river is a mile and a half wide, and the channel only 75 fathom, and passing under a high bank.

Pamunkey is then capable of for loaded flats to Brockman's bridge, 50 miles above Hanover town, and Mattapony to Downer's bridge, 70 miles above its mouth. Its soundings are, 7 fathom at the mouth; 5 at St. These falls are 15 miles in length, and of very great descent, and the above them for batteaux and canoes, is so much interrupted as to be little used. It is, however, used in a small degree up the Cohongoronta branch as far as Fort Cumberland, which was at the mouth of Wills's creek: and is capable, at no great expence, of being rendered very practicable. The Shenandoah branch interlocks with James river about the Blue ridge, and may perhaps in future be opened.

From the mouth of this river to where it receives the Ohio, is miles by water, but only by land, passing through the Chickasaw country. From the mouth of the Ohio to that of the Missouri, is miles by water, and by land. From thence to the mouth of the Illinois river, is about 25 miles. The Missisipi, below the mouth of the Missouri, is always muddy, and abounding with sand bars, which frequently change their places.

However, it carries 15 feet water to the mouth of the Ohio, to which place it is from one and a half to two miles wide, and thence to Kaskaskia from one mile to a mile and a quarter wide. Its current is so rapid, that it never can be stemmed by the force of the wind alone, acting on sails. Any vessel, however, navigated with oars, may come up at any time, and receive much aid from the wind. A batteau passes from the mouth of Ohio to the mouth of Missisipi in three weeks, and is from two to three months getting up again.

During its floods, which are periodical as those of the Nile, the largest vessels may pass down it, if their steerage Discreet affair in Erie be ensured. These floods begin in April, and the river returns into its banks early in August. The inundation extends further on the western than eastern side, covering the lands in some places for 50 miles from its banks. Above the mouth of the Missouri, it becomes much such a river as the Ohio, like it clear, and gentle in its current, not quite so wide, the period of its floods nearly the same, but not Discreet affair in Erie to so great a height.

The streets of the village at Cohoes are not more than 10 feet above the ordinary level of the water, and yet were never overflowed. Its bed deepens every year. Cohoes, in the memory of many people now living, was insulated by every flood of the river. What was the Eastern channel has now become a lake, 9 miles in length and one in width, into which the river at this day never flows. This river yields turtle of a peculiar kind, perch, trout, gar, pike, mullets, herrings, carp, spatula fish of 50 lb. Alligators or crocodiles have been seen as high up as the Acansas.

It also abounds in herons, cranes, ducks, brant, geese, and swans. Its passage is commanded by a fort established by this state, five miles below the mouth of Ohio, and ten miles above the Carolina boundary. The Missouri, since the treaty of Paristhe Illinois and Northern branches of the Ohio since the cession to Congress, are no longer within our limits. Yet having been so heretofore, and still opening to us channels of extensive communication with the western and north-western country, they shall be noted in their order. It is remarkably cold, muddy and rapid.

Its overflowings are considerable. They happen during the months of June and July. Their commencement being so much later than those of the Missisipi, would induce a belief that the sources of the Missouri are northward of those of the Missisipi, unless we suppose that the cold increases again with the ascent of the land from the Missisipi westwardly.

That this ascent is great, is proved by the rapidity of the river. Six miles above the mouth it is brought within the compass of a quarter of a mile's width: yet the Spanish Merchants at Pancore, or St.

Louis, say they go two thousand miles up it. It he far westward of the Rio Norte, or North River. There is, in the villages of Kaskaskia, Cohoes and St. Vincennes, no inconsiderable quantity of plate, said to have been plundered during the last war by the Indians from the churches and private houses of Santa Fe, on the North River, and brought to these villages for sale.

From the mouth of Ohio to Santa Fe are forty days journey, Discreet affair in Erie about miles. What is the shortest distance between the navigable waters of the Missouri, and those of the North River, or how far this is navigable above Santa Fe, I could never learn. From Santa Fe to its mouth in the Gulph of Mexico is about miles. The road from New Orleans to Mexico crosses this river at the post of Rio Norte, miles below Santa Fe: and from this post to New Orleans is about miles; thus making miles between Santa Fe and New Orleans, passing down the North river, Red river and Missisipi; whereas it is through the Missouri and Missisipi.

From the same post of Rio Norte, passing near the mines of La Sierra and Laiguana, which are between the North river and the river Salina to Sartilla, is miles; and from thence, passing the mines of Charcas, Zaccatecas and Potosi, to the city of Mexico is miles; in all, miles from Santa Fe to the city of Mexico. From New Orleans to the city of Mexico is about miles: the ro, after setting out from the Red river, near Natchitoches, keeping generally parallel with the coast, and about two hundred miles from it, till it enters the city of Mexico.

From thence is a portage of two miles only to the Chickago, which affords a batteau of 16 miles to its entrance into lake Michigan. The Illinois, about 10 miles above its mouth, is yards wide. So far also it is navigable for loaded batteaux, and perhaps much further. It is not rapid. Its current gentle, waters clear, and bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted.

In common winter and spring tides it affords 15 feet water to Louisville, 10 feet to La Tarte's rapids, 40 miles above the mouth of the great Kanhaway, and a sufficiency at all times for light batteaux and canoes to Fort Pitt. The rapids are in latitude 38 degrees.

The inundations of this river begin about the last of March, and subside in July. During these a first rate man of war may be carried from Louisville to New Orleans, if the sudden turns of the river and the strength of its current will admit a safe steerage. The rapids at Discreet affair in Erie descend about 30 feet in a length of a mile and a half. The bed of the river there is a solid rock, and is divided by an island into two branches, the southern of which is about yards wide, and is dry four months in the year.

The bed of the northern branch is worn into channels by the constant course of the water, and attrition of the pebble stones carried on with that, so as to be passable for batteaux through the greater part of the year. Yet it is thought that the southern arm may be the most easily opened for constant. The rise of the waters in these rapids does not exceed 10 or 12 feet. A part of this island is so high as to have been never overflowed, and to command the settlement at Louisville, which is opposite to it. The fort, however, is situated at the head of the falls.

The ground on the South side rises very gradually. This river crosses the southern boundary of Virginia, 58 miles from the Missisipi.

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Its current is moderate. It is navigable for loaded boats of any burthen to the Muscleshoals, where the river passes through the Cumberland mountain. These shoals are 6 or 8 miles long, passable downwards for loaded canoes, but not upwards, unless there be a swell in the river. Above these the for loaded canoes and batteaux continues to the Long island. This river has its inundations also. Above the Chickamogga towns is a whirlpool called the Sucking-pot, which takes in trunks of trees or boats, and throws them out again half a mile below.

It is avoided by keeping very close to the bank, on the South side. There are but a few miles portage between a branch of this river and the navigable waters of the river Mobile, which runs into the gulph of Mexico. Its clear fork crosses the same boundary about miles from the Missisipi.

Cumberland is a very gentle stream, navigable for loaded batteaux miles, without interruption; then intervene some rapids of 15 miles in length, after which it is again navigable 70 miles upwards, which brings you within 10 miles of the Cumberland mountains.

It is about yards wide through its whole course, from the head of its to its mouth. Vincennes, which is a post miles above the mouth, in a direct line. Within this space there are two small rapids, which give very little obstruction to the. It is yards wide at the mouth, and navigable 30 leagues upwards for canoes and small boats. From the mouth of Maple river to that of Eel river is about 80 miles in a direct line, the river continuing navigable, and from one to two hundred yards in width.

The Eel river is yards wide, and affords at all times for periaguas, to within 18 miles of the Miami of the lake. The Wabash, from the mouth of Eel river to Little river, a distance of 50 miles direct, is interrupted with Discreet affair in Erie rapids and shoals, which obstruct theexcept in a swell. Little river affords during a swell to within 3 miles of the Miami, which thence affords a similar into lake Erie, miles distant in a direct line.

The Wabash overflows periodically in correspondence with the Ohio, and in some places two leagues from its banks. It affords a for loaded batteaux miles in a direct line, in the winter tides.

Discreet affair in Erie

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